The Medical Student CHANGE Study used validated measures to assess mental health symptoms, burnout, self-esteem and sense of belonging among students attending a stratified random sample of 49 medical schools.  The table below presents mean scores broken down by race and ethnic subgroup.  See the main web page for the CHANGE Study for information on methods and measures.

On all measures, students who identified as Black had less favorable scores than their white counterparts.  Students that identified as White had the highest sense of belonging in their school as compared to students of any other race and ethnicity.

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Race and Ethnicity Differences* in Mental Health, Well-being & Sense of Belonging at the End of 4th Year of Medical School (n=3973)

Results from the Medical Student CHANGE Study (CHANGES) www.changestudy.org

Symptoms of Fatigue

Symptoms of Depression

Burnout

Global Self Esteem

Feelings of Belonging in their Medical School

Race and Ethnicity

 (higher score = more fatigue)  (higher score = more depression)  (higher score = more burnout)  (higher score = more self esteem) (higher score =  more belonging)
White, Non-Hispanic (n=2506) Mean 2.3556 1.6299 4.0696 6.1250 3.8540
Std. Deviation 0.812 0.748 1.529 1.013 0.878
Black, (Including Black + any other) (n=224) Mean 2.573 1.804 4.260 5.930 3.513
Std. Deviation 0.866 0.859 1.440 1.196 0.927
Hispanic, White (n=213) Mean 2.489 1.598 4.258 6.105 3.722
Std. Deviation 0.836 0.745 1.517 0.988 0.994
South Asian (n=386) Mean 2.552 1.979 4.309 5.652 3.651
Std. Deviation 0.915 1.010 1.605 1.223 1.026
East Asian (n=541) Mean 2.421 1.796 4.261 5.863 3.669
Std. Deviation 0.833 0.872 1.565 1.122 0.940
Other (n=103) Mean 2.623 1.907 4.291 5.819 3.482
Std. Deviation 0.942 1.036 1.535 1.344 1.026
Total (n=3973) Mean 2.410 1.702 4.146 6.023 3.773
Std. Deviation 0.837 0.818 1.538 1.081 0.922
*All differences are statistically significant  p<.05
 

Related Resources

Title Authors Citation
Association Between Perceived Medical School Diversity Climate and Change in Depressive Symptoms Among Medical Students: A Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study. First Author: Hardeman RR, Przedworski JM, Burke S, Burgess DJ, Perry S, Phelan S, Dovidio JF, Senior Author: van Ryn M. J Natl Med Assoc. 2016 Winter;108(4):225-235. doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2016.08.005. Epub 2016 Sep 24.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27979008
Racial Identity and Mental Well-Being: The Experience of African American Medical Students, A Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study. First Author: Hardeman RR, Perry SP, Phelan SM, Przedworski JM, Burgess DJ, Senior Author: van Ryn M. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2016 Jun;3(2):250-8. doi: 10.1007/s40615-015-0136-5. Epub 2015 Jun 20.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27271066
Mental Well-Being in First Year Medical Students: A Comparison by Race and Gender: A Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study. First Author: Hardeman RR,, Przedworski JM, Burke SE, Burgess DJ, Phelan SM, Dovidio JF, Nelson D, Rockwood T,  Senior Author: van Ryn M. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2015 Sep;2(3):403-13. doi: 10.1007/s40615-015-0087-x.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26413458
The Impact of Everyday Discrimination and Racial Identity Centrality on African American Medical Student Well-Being: a Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study. First Author: Perry SP, Hardeman R, Burke SE, Cunningham B, Burgess DJ,  Senior Author: van Ryn M. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2016 Sep;3(3):519-26. doi: 10.1007/s40615-015-0170-3. Epub 2015 Oct 20.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27294743
A Comparison of the Mental Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual First-Year Medical Students: A Report From the Medical Student CHANGE Study. First Author: Przedworski JM, Dovidio JF, Hardeman RR, Phelan SM, Burke SE, Ruben MA, Perry SP, Burgess DJ, Nelson DB, Yeazel MW, Knudsen JM,  Senior Author: van Ryn M. Acad Med. 2015 May;90(5):652-9. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000658.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25674912
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